I'm excited by the idea of having a condensed overview of Guerrilla Warfare. Plus this is helping me to understand clearly the concepts and to apply them to el Cliquero at each turn. The issues that arise give me new directions for el Cliq. It's fascinating.
Here are my notes to date.
INTRODUCTION and DEDICATION
Jose Carlos Mariategui
Hilda Gadea Peru, met in MX. Introduced many of these ideas to Che.
Jacobo Arbenz Guatemala. mistakes in US-backed coup
Jan 1, 1959 Cuban Revolution
Jan 1, 1994 EZLN Revolution
- heads Cuban National Bank
- Minister of industry
- Ambassador of Cuba
Fought in Congo.
Ospaaal (last speech of Che)
- hemisphere wide rev
- launch in Bolivia
- strategic location
- isolated eastern jungle
- La Higuera, St Ernesto de
Oct 8, 1967
MX army shoots 300 in plaza of the three cultures in DF.
1) people can org into small guerrilla army & overthrow large powerful, established regime
2) popular movements do not have to wait for proper economic cond, before organizing revolutionary war, it can create them
3) latin american struggles should be based in rural peasant population
To spur revolution, a dedicated cadre must engage in political education of masses.
"The duty of every revolutionary is to make revolution."
Che broke w/ tradition thought regarding the peasantry. He wanted to use them.
Hector Bejar defeat in Peru (65)
Che in Bolivia (67)
Saw Machu Pichu ruins on moto trip
Zapata "Tierra y libertad"
Died: flight from Camaguey to Havana oct 28, 1959
Danto: audacity, audacity, and more audacity (re:revolutionary movements)
For Camilo, loyalty was like a religion.
He did not measure danger, but used it for diversion, mocked it, lured it, toyed with it, played with it.
Camilo is a monument of the people.
ESSENCE OF GUERRILLA WARFARE
3 fundamentals lessons contributed by Cuban Revolution
1) popular forces can win war against army
2) not necessary to wait until ALL conditions for making revolution exist; the insurrection can create them
3) in underdeveloped America the countryside is basic area for armed fighting
You can do what was previously thought impossible (by defeatist attitude).
War responds to a series of scientific laws, to ignore them means certain defeat.
Guerrilla Warfare is a war of the masses, war of the people.
Local help important. Indispensable condition.
Why does the Guerrilla fight? The Guerrilla is a social reformer.
Know the land. (agrarian revolutionary--but isn't it something a bit different? While the agrarian is the true beneficiary of the revolution, the Guerrilla is a social revolutionary)
What do peasants want? The Guerrilla interprets the desires of the great peasant mass to be owners (land, means of prod, animals, etc) [what do peasants really want? what does el Cliquero believe?]
El Cinco de Mao - China: breakout of worker groups in south, defeated and nearly annihilated. After establishing itself it begins to advance after a long march to Yenan where it makes its base in rural territories and makes ag reform fundamental goal.
Fight no battle without assurance of success. "The Guerrilla fighter is the Jesuit of warfare." [interpret what this means]
It is always possible to carry out Guerrilla attacks in such a way as to assure surprise; and it is the Guerrilla fighter's duty to do so.
Guerrilla War is only a phase. [As a singleton, what phase is el Cliquero?] "[I]t is clear that Guerrilla Warfare is a phase that does not afford in itself opportunities to arrive at complete victory. It is one of the initial phases of warfare and will develop continuously until the Guerrilla army in its steady growth acquires the characteristics of a regular army."
The enemy provides. "The value of a tank, of an airplane in a fight of this type must be weighed. The arms of the enemy, his ammunition, his habits must be considered; because the principal source of provision for the Guerrilla force is precisely in enemy armaments."
Essential task: don't be destroyed.
Continuous blows. "At every moment the impression ought to be created that he is surrounded by a complete circle. In wooded and broken areas this effort should be maintained both day and night; in open zones that are easily penetrated by enemy patrols, at night only."
Work intensively with masses to explain revolution. "[S]pread the incontrovertible truth that victory of the enemy against the people is impossible."
Secure secrecy. Work with the people is first aimed at securing secrecy.
Huelga. The most important factor in civil war. Conditions are necessary.
Sabotage. One of the terrible arms of the Guerrilla band. Using it reduces "the morale of the enemy, the morale of the enemy combatant units."
- paralyze entire armies,
- suspend industrial life in zone,
- leave inhabitants without factories,
- without light,
- without water,
- without communications,
- without being able to risk travel except at certain hours.
Bees to a new hive. "When a Guerrilla band has reached a respectable power in arms and in number of combatants, it out to proceed to the formation of new columns. This is an act similar to that of the beehive when at a given moment it releases a new queen, who goes to another region with a part of the swarm. The mother hive with the most notable Guerrilla chief will stay in the less dangerous places, while the new columns will penetrate other enemy territories following the cycle already described."
A war of positions. Formal, regular armies fighting each other with traditional means for position.
Match the enemy. Adjust Guerrilla action to the action of the enemy.
Mobility. The fundamental characteristic of a Guerrilla band.
Encirclement. The enemy's only way to force the band into a decisive fight that could be unfavorable.
The Minuet. "The Guerrilla bands encircle an enemy position, an advancing column, for example; they encircle it completely from the four points of the compass, with five or six men in each place, far enough away to avoid being encircled themselves; the fight is started at any one of the four points, and the army moves toward it; the Guerrilla band then retreats, always maintaining visual contact, and initiates its attach from another point. The army will repeat its action and the Guerrilla band the same. Thus, successively, it is possible to keep an enemy column immobilized, forcing it to expend large quantities of ammunition and weakening the morale of its troops without incurring great dangers.
Night moves. The Minuet at night is much more difficult to counter. Guerrilla band can become more aggressive.
Take ammo from the dead. "A dead soldier of the Guerrillas ought never to be left with his arms and his ammunition."
Diff of Guerrilla v. enemy? Their use of ammo. Listen.
Flexibility. "[A]dapt ...to all circumstances and convert to his service all the accidents of the action... [I]nvent tactics at every minute of the flight and constantly surprise the enemy."
Choose well. "Choose well the moment of attack and the place for defending a position without retreat."
Attacks can change. "Starting with surprise and fury, irresistable, it suddenly converts itself into total passivity. The surviving enemy, resting, believes that the attacker has departed; he begins to relax, to return to the routine life of the camp or of the fortress, when with the same characteristics, while the main body of the Guerrilla band lies in wait to intercept reinforcements... The fundamental thing is surprise and rapidity of attack."
Sabotage v. Terrorism. "Terrorism makes victims of innocent people and destroys a large number of lives that would be valuable to the revolution. [It can be] considered a valuable tactic when it is used to put to death some noted leader of the oppressing forces well known for his cruelty, his efficiency in repression, or other quality that makes his elimination useful. [Beware, ] the killing of persons of small importance is never advisable, since it brings on an increase of reprisals, including deaths."
Transportation: a weak point of the enemy. "It is virtually impossible to maintain a vigil yard by yard over a transport line, a road, or a railroad."
Doubly effective: make sure vehicles are on the bridges destroyed.
Secret labs within the Guerrilla zone. Manufacture explosives.
Tele-explosive mines: exploded by radio. Used against the French in Algeria.
Use mines to gain ammo from those cut down.
1) perfect knowledge of ground
2) surveillance and foresight as to lines of escape
3) vigilance over all secondary roads for enemy attack support
4) intimacy with people in zone (support through supplies, transport, temporary hiding places)
5) superiority at chosen point of action
6) total mobility
7) count on reserves from enemy
Treat people properly.
1) absolute inflexibility at time of attack
2) absolute inflexibility toward all despicable elements leading to informing and assassination
3) clemency as absolute as possible toward enemy soldiers who go into fight with belief they perform a military duty
4) take no prisoners, set survivors free
5) care for wounded with all possible resources at time of action
6) practice respect for rules and traditions of people in zone
7) demonstrate effectively with deeds the moral superiority of the Guerrilla fighter over the oppressing soldier
8) execution of justice? criminal should be given a chance to clear himself first.
WARFARE ON FAVORABLE GROUND
The Guerrilla band must move from its refuge to meet army and once survival is assured it should fight.
Maintain a close watch on points of access to region of fighting.
Favorable ground allows Guerrilla to dig in sooner "to form a Guerrilla base capable of engaging in a war of positions, where small industries may be installed as they are needed, as well as hospitals, centers for education and training, storage facilities, organs of propaganda, etc. adequately protected from aviation or from long-range artillery."
Typical model band. Ideally, 10-15 single shot rifles, 10 automatic arms (Garands, hand machine guns, including light/easily portable MG like Browning, Belgian FAL, M-14 auto rifles). Best are 9mm.
Weapons: simpler is better. Standard parts allow for replacement and maintenance based on others captured from enemy.
Mule is best supply animal in rough country. Adequate pasture req'd. Hills, no problem. (Men can carry 25KG each)
Run your own telephone lines.